CARL AZUZ, CNN ANCHOR: Hi. I`m Carl Azuz. Welcome to CNN STUDENT NEWS. And the first official day of fall. Today, is the autumnal equinox when day is almost exactly as long as night. It`s also at leaders from all over the worlds, they are meeting at the United Nations headquarters in New York. Five things to know about this.
One, it`s called the U.N. General Assembly. It started in 1946 with 51 countries represented. Today, there are 193. Two, the General Assembly is one of six branches of the United Nations. It`s the only branch that offers all member countries the chance to vote on various issues. Three, regardless of those votes or agreements or resolutions, though, the General Assembly has no power to enforce them. That brings up four. The event is like a giant international sounding board. There are many speeches, but usually little action. Five, a wide range of subjects can be discussed including climate change. Tens of thousands marched in New York City this week to draw attention to the issue. A U.N. summit on climate change is set for tonight. But it`s not the only issue before the U.N. General Assembly.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Inside this General Assembly hall where the nations of the world, they are supposed to get together in harmony, people have issues. Beef with other countries and capitals.
The United States will have beef with Russia over Ukraine, the United States will have beef with Syria, which is here over the terrible violence that`s gone on there for years. And oftentimes, it will have beef with either Palestinians or Israel, whichever side they feel is not complying with the Washington`s wishes.
This will not come as a surprise. There will not be a Middle East peace agreement signed at this year`s General Assembly session. However, Israel and the Palestinians will definitely verbally duke it out. Gaza, the big battle for Gaza really inflamed the situation. There were no current peace talks. Right now I`d say the big dispute is Ukraine, Russia. It doesn`t seem to end despite whatever progress is made. I think you will see denunciations of Moscow from various Baltic nations and the West, and unless the situation drastically improves, I think that`s what you are going to find as the major contest here.
It`s very rare for health issues, such as Ebola to dominate the headlines at the United Nations General Assembly. There is real fear of its spreading. Western African leaders are going to be here. There is no doubt, Ebola will be part of their remarks and will probably feature calls for help and global assistance to help fight the spread.
Hillary Clinton I believe once said that one week of General Assembly can take one year off your life. It can be exhausting, many diplomats told me that appearing at the General Assembly for a world leader is like diplomatic speed dating. You`ve got five minutes with this president, two minutes with this foreign minister. Presumably they`ll all come with schedule and an agenda and a goal of what they want to do, but it`s real hurly-burly of diplomatic activity.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Time for the Shoutout. Where would you find Olympus Mons? If you think you know it, shout it out. Is it in Athens, Greece, Mars, Antarctica or Haley`s Comet? You`ve got three seconds, go!
Olympus Mons is a volcano believed to be the largest in our solar system. And it`s located on Mars. That`s your answer and that`s your Shoutout.
AZUZ: To give you an idea of how massive Olympus Mons is, think Arizona. It`s the size of Arizona. How do scientists come up with estimates like this? Here`s one way: it`s called Maven, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Craft. It launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida ten months ago and arrived just this week in its orbit around Mars. Why did it take ten months? Because it had to travel 442 million miles.
Unlike NASA`s Rover missions, Maven won`t actually land on Mars. It`s on a bit of a detective mission. Scientists want to find out how Mars became the red planet. They think it might have been more like Earth at some point before it was a dried up massive red crust. NASA is currently spending several billion dollars on various investigations of Mars. Why did they add Maven to the mix?
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: For scientists or space enthusiasts alike, Mars continues to amaze. It`s no surprise the red planet is currently the subject of five active NASA missions. Three in orbit, and two on the surface. And lift off of the Atlas 5 with Curiosity seeking clues to the planetary puzzle about life on Mars.
CHAD MYERS, CNN CORRESPONDENT: You`ve probably heard of Curiosity, NASA`s Rover studying the geology and climate on the ground. Now, NASA's sixth mission, Maven, is hoping to study Mars from above. And answer a 4 billion year old question, what made the fourth planet from the Sun turn red and barren? Scientists believe that Mars may have looked a lot like Earth, with blue skies and warm temperatures.
(on camera): We do believe that Mars at one point had liquid water, correct?
JIM GARVIN, CHIEF SCIENTIST, NASA: Absolutely. Evidence in the rocks from Curiosity is literally, unassailable. And we see the record even in the frozen materials in the soil today.
MYERS (voice over): Collecting new measurements of the planet`s upper atmosphere, we`ll get those analyzing the data a better understanding of the climate change over the red planet`s history.
GARVIN: We expect to learn how the modern Mars works, really in detail, to see its climate state, to understand how the atmosphere is lost to space, how Mars may have lost a magnetic field. To take down information and map it back in time.
MYERS: NASA says the journey and Maven $671 million price tag are worth it, especially if Maven can help unlock the big question, did life ever exist on Mars? Chad Myers, CNN, Atlanta.
AZUZ: Elimelech Goldberg is both a rabbi and a black belt. For 12 years he worked at a camp for children who were battling cancer. He`s been able to take his knowledge of martial arts and use it to teach children that pain is a message they don`t have to listen to. September is childhood cancer awareness months. It`s a perfect time to introduce you to this CNN hero.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I really hate when it hurts. It`s a really sharp pain. I get all teary. The shots really scared me a lot. And they still scare me now.
UNIDENTIFIED CHILD: I don`t want it!
ELIMELECH GOLDBERG: When children get a diagnosis like cancer, or any major disease, they lose any sense of feeling that they are controlling their lives.
GOLDBERG: They`re prodded and poked and touched and they are often so afraid. Our daughter Sarah Basia (ph) was diagnosed with leukemia. She was such an incredible little soul who taught me about the power that`s inside of ourselves.
(on camera): Are you ready?
GOLDBERG (voice over): After our daughter passed away, I started a program that provides classes to children who are sick to teach them the martial arts.
(on camera): Good!
(voice over): To make them feel powerful.
GOLDBERG (on camera): Every single type of martial arts uses the breath to take control.
(voice over): I`m a black belt in Taekwondo.
GOLDBERG (on camera): Hold it and then release.
(voice over): We use the martial arts as a platform for meditation, for relaxation, to allow children to gain these tools.
(on camera): You`re totally in control.
(voice over): To really phase down so much of the fear, the anger that accompanies pain.
GOLDBERG (on camera): Breathe in!
(voice over): And you could see that light on their face. I feel like their souls are shining.
(on camera): You did it!
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I do have the power to make the pain go away. And nothing is impossible. Nothing.
AZUZ: From coast to coast, with a stop in between, today`s "Roll Call" is going cross country. First up, from Helix, Oregon, we`ve got the Grizzlies of Griswold High School. In Springdale, Arkansas, the golden eagles are flying high over Lakeside Jr. High School. And in Monroe, North Carolina, we are calling on the Panthers of Piedmont High School. Thanks to all of you for your requests at cnnstudentnews.com.
Why did the armadillo cross the road? It might have something to do with recent flooding in Houston, Texas. Whatever the reason, it needed some help to do it safely, and it got it from a police officer to serve and protect people and armadillos. You can`t hear it in this video, but the officer calls it buddy. And when the animal holds up traffic, the officer takes him by the tail and brings the happy ending to the tale.
Guess he consider the animal armored and dangerous, but even if it was living on burrow time, the officer had to get him snout of trouble in order to transfix the situation. It was for a good clause. I`m Carl Azuz for CNN STUDENT NEWS. We`ll see you Wednesday.

Source: CNN

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